Ludwig 14.

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Als 2-Disc-Set mit Werbung anzuzeigen. Stefan Zweig nimmt nun auch der Schule mit ihrer Welt auffraen verffentlicht nur immer noch kein Wunder gewesen, als sie unter extremen Bedingungen auf RTL habe eine Rolle.

Ludwig 14.

Als Sonnenkönig herrscht Ludwig XIV. und gibt entscheidende Impulse für die Entfaltung des Absolutismus in Europa. Von: Simon Demmelhuber & Volker. Ludwig XIV. gab Frankreich nicht nur eine neue absolutistische Ordnung, sondern auch einen galanten Stil. Häufig wechselnde Mätressen. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-​Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer.

Ludwig 14. Pracht im Leben und im Ableben

Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-​Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Auch wenn die Öffentlichkeit glaubt, Henriette Anna sei Ludwigs Geliebte. Gemälde: Ludwig der XIV. als Kind mit seiner Mutter. Ludwigs Mutter hat von Beginn an. Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag. Ludwig XIV. gab Frankreich nicht nur eine neue absolutistische Ordnung, sondern auch einen galanten Stil. Häufig wechselnde Mätressen. Obwohl er verheiratet war, hatte Ludwig XIV. zahlreiche Affären. Mit einigen Mätressen kam er gar über Jahre hinweg täglich zusammen und zeugte mit ihnen.

Ludwig 14.

Auch wenn die Öffentlichkeit glaubt, Henriette Anna sei Ludwigs Geliebte. Gemälde: Ludwig der XIV. als Kind mit seiner Mutter. Ludwigs Mutter hat von Beginn an. Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag. Louis XIV, Sonnenkönig (). Er war in vierfacher Hinsicht eine Ausnahmeerscheinung. Der französische König und Gründer der saarländischen Stadt. Ludwig 14.

Ludwig 14. Inhaltsverzeichnis Video

Mächtigste Monarch Europas Sonnenkönig Doku deutsch

Der Einfluss der französischen Könige auf die eigene Kirche war ohnehin sehr stark, nun jedoch durfte der Papst auch keine Legaten mehr ohne des Königs Zustimmung nach Frankreich senden.

Bischöfe durften ohne königliche Erlaubnis das Land nicht verlassen, kein Staatsbeamter exkommuniziert werden für Taten, die seinen Dienst betrafen.

Alle kirchlichen Privilegien wurden dem Monarchen übertragen, sämtliche Einflussmöglichkeiten des Papstes durch die Billigung des Königs reguliert.

In dieser Sichtweise folgte er konsequent der Religionspolitik seiner Vorgänger, darin besonders der Vorgabe Kardinal Richelieus , die stets eine Wiederholung der Hugenottenkriege fürchteten.

Des Weiteren wurde er in dem tiefen Glauben erzogen, dass die Seele eines Protestanten den Qualen der Hölle ausgeliefert sei, weshalb er es als seine Pflicht ansah, die Seelen seiner hugenottischen Untertanen zu retten.

Er setzte deshalb die protestantische Bevölkerung unter Druck, vor allem durch das Edikt von Fontainebleau Dadurch wurde das im Jahr von Heinrich IV.

Hugenottische Kirchen wurden daraufhin zerstört, protestantische Schulen geschlossen. Diese französischen Flüchtlinge beeinflussten etwa die protestantische Arbeitsethik der Niederlande, wodurch später der bereits erhebliche Reichtum in dieser Region noch gesteigert wurde.

Die neuere Forschung hat allerdings gezeigt, dass die Zahl der Geflohenen bei weitem zu gering war, um einen spürbaren Schaden an der französischen Wirtschaft herbeizuführen.

Aufgrund der einsetzenden Flüchtlingswellen des Jahres verhängte Ludwig ein Emigrationsverbot. Nach den Bekehrungs- und Missionierungsaktionen gipfelten die Verfolgungen in den Dragonaden und der Zerstörung hunderter protestantischer Dörfer.

Letztlich war für Ludwig XIV. Ab dem Jahr formierte sich die Liga von Augsburg , ein Zusammenschluss protestantischer und katholischer Staaten gegen Frankreichs Eroberungspolitik.

Mitglieder waren der römisch-deutsche Kaiser Leopold I. Ludwig entsandte erneut Truppen in die Pfalz, um seine Ansprüche auf dieses Land zu demonstrieren und einem Angriff der Liga an dieser Stelle zuvorzukommen.

Letztere formierte sich zu einer Offensivallianz und erklärte Frankreich den Krieg, dem sich England nach der Glorreichen Revolution von ebenso anschloss.

Die Konfrontation mündete in den Pfälzer Erbfolgekrieg — Frankreich hatte sich zwar zuvor nicht auf diesen Krieg vorbereiten können, war aber sehr erfolgreich.

Französische Armeen besetzten die Spanischen Niederlande, marschierten ins Reich ein und eroberten zahlreiche feste Plätze.

Ludwig selbst beteiligte sich an einigen Belagerungen so in Mons und in Namur. Zudem waren umfangreiche Truppenverbände des Kaisers im 5.

Türkenkrieg gebunden. Es gelang keiner der beiden Seiten, den Gegner endgültig niederzuringen. Frankreich konnte nicht aus dem Reich verdrängt werden.

Als Ludwig XIV. Juli , militärisch keinen Frieden erzwingen konnte, begann er, seine Diplomaten als politische Waffe einzusetzen.

Die erschöpften Kontrahenten begannen den Frieden von Rijswijk zu vereinbaren, der im Jahr unterzeichnet wurde. Darüber hinaus erkannte Ludwig XIV.

Frankreich sollte so die Möglichkeit bekommen, sich langfristig von den Kriegsanstrengungen zu erholen.

Nach dem Jahr begann die spanische Thronfolge zunehmend zum Hauptthema an den Höfen Europas zu werden. Der spanische König Karl II.

Ludwig hatte allerdings mit Maria Teresa von Spanien die ältere von beiden geehelicht und diese hatte nie mit Gültigkeit auf ihr Erbrecht verzichtet.

Leopold hingegen hatte die jüngere Tochter Margarita von Spanien geheiratet und war zudem der Meinung, dass Spanien im Besitz der Habsburger bleiben müsste.

Nun fürchteten andere Staaten wiederum, dass die Mächtekonstellation in Europa erheblich erschüttert werden würde, sollten sich Frankreich oder Kaiser Leopold Spanien gänzlich einverleiben.

Teilungsvertrag aus. Der bayerische Prinz Joseph-Ferdinand sollte Spanien bekommen und die restlichen europäischen Besitzungen Spaniens sollten zwischen Ludwig und Leopold aufgeteilt werden.

Kaiser Leopold akzeptierte diese vertragliche Regelung. Spanien hingegen lehnte jede Teilung seines Reiches ab. Karl II.

Dessen Ansprüche wurden jedoch durch den 2. Teilungsvertrag zwischen Frankreich und England geschmälert.

Nach diesem sollte Erzherzog Karl zwar Spanien erben, aber die italienischen Besitzungen sollten an Frankreich fallen. Daraufhin verweigerte Kaiser Leopold I.

Teilungsvertrag und beanspruchte das gesamte spanische Erbe ungeteilt für seinen Sohn Karl, womit er Frankreich, Holland und England brüskierte.

Sollte dieser unerwartet den französischen Thron erben, so würde dessen jüngerer Bruder, der Herzog von Berry , Spaniens neuer König.

Sollte auch dieser nicht mehr zu Verfügung stehen, so würde dann erst Erzherzog Karl sein Erbe werden. Damit erkannte Karl II.

Teilungsvertrag mit England bestehen, den Kaiser Leopold jedoch nie anerkannt hatte? Nach intensivem Abwägen mit seinen Ministern, entschloss er sich, das spanische Erbe zu akzeptieren, da ein Krieg mit dem Kaiser nun ohnehin unvermeidlich war und Frankreich so die bessere Position gegen den Kaiser einnehmen konnte.

Es gilt als gesichert, dass eine Ablehnung des Testaments den Krieg nicht hätte verhindern können, da Kaiser Leopold den Waffengang plante, wenn Frankreich auf dem 2.

Teilungsvertrag bestanden hätte. So proklamierte Ludwig XIV. Ludwig befahl die sofortige Besetzung der spanischen Nebenländer, noch bevor sich Leopold ihrer bemächtigen konnte.

Die französisch-spanische Allianz wurde durch Savoyen , Kurköln und Bayern unterstützt, wodurch der Spanische Erbfolgekrieg — ausgelöst wurde.

Der Krieg verlief jedoch wenig geradlinig. Frankreichs Armeen dominierten zu Beginn das Feld. Die kaiserlichen Alliierten hatten jedoch alle verfügbaren Kräfte gegen Frankreich mobilisiert und ihre Armeen modernisiert und ausgebaut.

Frankreich war gezwungen, während des Krieges Frankreichs Staatsfinanzen wurden überbeansprucht, leere Kassen waren die Folge. Da die Alliierten jedoch unannehmbare Forderungen stellten, wurden Gespräche unverzüglich abgebrochen.

In der Folge wendete sich das Blatt wieder leicht zu Gunsten Frankreichs, eine Entscheidung brachte dies jedoch nicht. Alle Parteien waren zermürbt und auch die kaiserlichen Alliierten standen vor einem finanziellen und wirtschaftlichen Kollaps.

Als im Jahr Kaiser Joseph I. Zwei Jahre später unterzeichnete England den Separatfrieden von Utrecht mit Ludwig und Philipp und schwächte so die Kaiserlichen weiter.

Danach erfolgte der Friede von Baden zwischen Frankreich und dem Reich. Philipp V. Damit hatte Frankreich sein politisches Hauptziel erreicht und die Bourbonen auf Spaniens Thron etabliert, musste jedoch auf fast jede militärische Eroberung verzichten.

Dennoch war die habsburgische Umklammerung Frankreichs endgültig zerschlagen worden. Da sein Urenkel Ludwig XV.

September durch Wundbrand an seinem linken Bein. Sein Leichnam wurde durch den Chirurgen und Dozenten [7] Pierre Dionis — [8] mittels Gerbsäure in Pulverform konserviert [9] und später in der Abtei von Saint-Denis begraben, der traditionellen Grablege der französischen Könige.

Frankreich war zum mächtigsten Staat und kulturellen Zentrum Europas avanciert. Französisch diente im Folgenden im Jahrhundert als Sprache des guten Geschmacks, ähnlich wie später Englisch zur globalen Wirtschaftssprache werden sollte.

Im Jahrhundert übernahm zum Beispiel der russische Adel französische Sitten und sprach eher Französisch als Russisch. Andererseits jedoch war die Bevölkerung nach 72 Jahren Herrschaft ihres alten Königs überdrüssig.

Die provisorische Regierung hatte nämlich am Oktober geöffnet und der darin liegende Leichnam exhumiert. König Heinrich IV.

Während der bourbonischen Restauration wurden die beiden Gruben wieder geöffnet und die darin befindlichen Gebeine aller hier verscharrten Könige, auch die Ludwigs XIV.

Januar nach Saint-Denis rücküberführt [11] und dort in einem gemeinsamen Ossarium in der Krypta der Kathedrale beigesetzt, da die Überreste nicht mehr einzelnen Individuen zugeordnet werden konnten.

Ein deutliches Zeichen an dessen Nachahmer. Das Amt des Finanzministers wurde abgeschafft und durch einen Finanzrat ersetzt, dem der König und Colbert persönlich vorstanden.

Etwas Unerhörtes zu dieser Zeit, denn ein König hatte sich damals eigentlich nicht um etwas so Unschickliches wie Geld zu kümmern.

Indem Colbert die Korruption bekämpfte und die Bürokratie neu organisierte, konnte er die Steuereinnahmen mehr als verdoppeln, ohne neue Steuern erheben zu müssen.

So war es Ludwig möglich, bereits am Anfang seiner persönlichen Regierung eine Steuersenkung zu erlassen und so ein schnelleres Wachstum der französischen Wirtschaft zu erreichen.

Die Wirtschaft wurde durch die Einrichtung von Handelskompanien und Manufakturen gefördert. Besonders die französische Luxusindustrie wurde bald führend in Europa und darüber hinaus.

Nach innen wurde Nordfrankreich einer Zollunion unterworfen, um so innerfranzösische Handelshemmnisse abzubauen. Colberts Versuche eine einheitliche Zollbarriere für das ganze Königreich zu erwirken, scheiterten jedoch an lokalen Handelsprivilegien.

Das französische Steuersystem enthielt Handelssteuern aides , douanes , Salzsteuer gabelle und Landsteuer taille.

Durch veraltete Regelungen aus dem Feudalismus waren der Adel und der Klerus von diesen direkten Steuern befreit, die von der Landbevölkerung und der aufstrebenden Mittelklasse der Bourgeoisie aufgebracht werden mussten.

Vermutlich wurde die Französische Revolution auch vom Ärger über dieses alte Steuersystem genährt. Allerdings ist unter Ludwig XIV.

Zur Zahlung der indirekten Steuern waren diese ohnehin verpflichtet. Der König führte eine Kopfsteuer capitation ein, von der die unteren Schichten kaum erfasst wurden, aber von der die beiden oberen Stände in vollem Umfang betroffen waren.

Selbst die Prinzen von Geblüt und der Dauphin mussten den höchsten Steuersatz zahlen. Auf diese Weise wurde der Hochadel zum ersten Mal unvermittelt an der Finanzierung des Staates beteiligt.

Allerdings betrugen die Staatsschulden durch die harten Anforderungen des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges 3,5 Milliarden Livres; als Ludwig im Jahr starb, betrugen die Steuereinnahmen 69 Millionen und die Staatsausgaben Millionen Livres.

Frankreich war ein strukturell stabiles und ressourcenstarkes Land, das mit über 20 Millionen Einwohnern das mit Abstand bevölkerungsreichste Land Europas war.

Er entfaltete ein noch nie zuvor gesehenes Mäzenatentum mit der Absicht, die gesamte Kunstlandschaft Frankreichs zu beeinflussen, zu prägen und zu lenken, um sie im Interesse königlicher Politik zu instrumentalisieren.

Dem Minister wurde die Organisation der Gloire des Königs überlassen. Dutzende von Bühnenstücken verfasste. Beide Künstler zusammen zeigten sich für die Organisation der königlichen Spektakel verantwortlich.

Daneben förderte Ludwig XIV. Er vollendete die Bestrebungen der Kardinäle Richelieu und Mazarin und schuf einen zentralisierten, absolutistischen Territorialstaat.

Er schwächte den Adel , indem er die Adeligen lieber zu Mitgliedern seines Hofes als zu regionalen Provinzherrschern machte. Mai bezog. Die höfische Etikette nötigte die Adeligen dazu, immense Geldsummen für ihre Kleidung auszugeben, und ihre Zeit vor allem auf Bällen, Diners und anderen Festlichkeiten zu verbringen, die die alltägliche Routine des Hoflebens darstellten.

Deshalb konnte kein Aristokrat , der auf die Gunst des Königs angewiesen war, seine Abwesenheit riskieren. Anstatt seine regionalen Angelegenheiten zu regeln und seine dortige Macht zu behalten, wetteiferte der Adel nun um solche trivialen Ehren wie die, dem König beim Ankleiden helfen zu dürfen.

Dadurch konnte Ludwig den niederen Amtsadel fördern und Bürgerliche in Positionen einsetzen, die früher von der traditionellen Aristokratie beansprucht wurden.

So ruhte die politische Macht fest in der Hand des Königs. Man kann nicht stark genug herausstellen, dass Versailles hauptsächlich nicht als Ort für das persönliche Vergnügen des Königs diente, sondern als politisches Machtinstrument gedacht war.

Durch die Bindung des Hochadels an den Hof geriet dieser nicht nur zunehmend in persönliche Abhängigkeit vom König, sondern wurde ebenso von Rebellionen und Machtkompetenzen ferngehalten.

Unter die vornehme, adelige Hofgesellschaft mischten sich in den weiträumigen Schlossanlagen Besucher, Schaulustige und zumeist eine beträchtliche Zahl von Bittstellern.

Im Prinzip stand jedem Untertan das traditionelle Recht zu, dem König Bittgesuche placets zu überreichen. Seit hat Ludwig XIV. Der Monarch sah darin eine willkommene Möglichkeit, sich mit den unmittelbaren Sorgen und Nöten seiner Untertanen vertraut zu machen.

Bis war der Marquis de Louvois, Staatssekretär für das Kriegswesen und Minister, für die Weiterleitung dieser Gesuche verantwortlich.

Sie wurden danach von den zuständigen Staatssekretären bearbeitet und alsbald — mit einem entsprechenden Bericht versehen — dem König vorgelegt, der dann jeden Fall persönlich entschied.

Paris erlebte unter der Aufsicht Colberts einen Bauboom, wie kaum wieder in der Geschichte. Antoine und St. Paris wuchs sprunghaft und war mit Die französische Hauptstadt wurde zum städtebaulichen und kulturellen Vorbild für den ganzen Kontinent.

Es gab einige Hauptresidenzen in der Umgebung der Hauptstadt, welche seit langem als Sitz der Könige dienten.

In Marly entstand ab eine imposante Anlage, die als einzige nicht der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich war. Erscheinen durfte man nur auf ausdrückliche Einladung und eine solche galt als eine der höchsten Ehren im Leben eines Höflings.

In der Umgebung, der nunmehr zur Stadt erhobenen Anlagen von Versailles, entstanden zahllose Schlösser und Gärten, die von Angehörigen des Königshauses und vom Hofadel errichtet wurden.

All dies verschlang ungeheure Mengen Geld und der Adel war bald gezwungen Pensionen vom König zu erbitten, um den Lebensstandard zu halten.

Er war für seinen Charme bekannt und brachte jedem die Höflichkeit entgegen, die ihm gebührte. Selbst vor Mägden soll er den Hut gezogen haben.

Seine wichtigsten Eigenschaften waren wohl eine unerschütterliche Menschenkenntnis und der ihm nachgesagte scharfe Verstand. Das Regieren fiel ihm leicht, denn er hatte eine geradezu professionelle Einstellung zu seiner Arbeit.

Es wird berichtet, dass er in Sitzungen niemals ermüdete und jedem aufmerksam zuhörte, der das Wort an ihn richtete.

Auch zeichnete ihn enorme Willenskraft aus; so begegnete er Schmerzen und Situationen der Todesgefahr mit völliger Gelassenheit und Selbstbeherrschung.

Beispielhaft dafür steht, dass er schon wenige Wochen nach einer ohne Narkose durchgeführten Operation wieder ausritt.

Er wurde von einem starken Drang nach Ruhm und Reputation geleitet, aber auch vom Gefühl der Pflichterfüllung gegenüber dem Staat und seinen Untertanen.

Seine unehelichen Kinder legitimierte er ausnahmslos, erhob sie in den Prinzenrang und verheiratete sie mit Prinzen und Prinzessinnen von Geblüt.

Als Liebhaber und Förderer des Hofballetts tanzte er bis zu seinem Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen.

Another event Louis found threatening was England's Glorious Revolution of This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England.

He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a provocation. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England.

Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William.

Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.

This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the preemptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".

His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion. Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.

Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.

Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which more than 4, buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.

The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.

Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail.

Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.

The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border as it is to this day.

However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.

Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , heir to the Spanish throne.

Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.

The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.

Though in some respects the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.

By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years. He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs.

The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria. Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations.

However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters. In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.

This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.

William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.

In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died. The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories.

On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.

He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided.

Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union. If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.

Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He could agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.

He may initially have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties, but the Dauphin's insistence persuaded him otherwise.

He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".

Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly. Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly.

Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.

But his actions were certainly not read as disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.

These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.

Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France.

The war began with French successes, but the talents of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.

The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy.

Marlborough and Eugene met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to invade France. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France.

Between and , over two million people died in two famines, made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages.

By the winter of —09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years.

But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him.

If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V.

The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.

The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.

In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.

If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 's in the 16th century.

To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.

Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.

Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.

Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.

He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.

He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.

Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church.

He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly. Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.

Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies.

Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.

With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of his reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.

At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.

The memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.

While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.

The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.

With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.

With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.

The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.

Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits.

The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.

This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.

The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.

As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.

There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.

Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.

Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle.

However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain.

However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson. That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants.

The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later. In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.

In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.

He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.

Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns.

Louis, however, struck more than to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France.

He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events.

They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.

Louis loved ballet and frequently danced in court ballets during the early half of his reign. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets.

This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer. His choices were strategic and varied. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun.

It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing.

The sheer number of performances he gave as well as the diversity of roles he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form.

Ballet dancing was actually used by Louis as a political tool to hold power over his state. He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities.

Pierre Beauchamp , his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success.

His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in This major development in ballet played an important role in promoting French culture and ballet throughout Europe during Louis' time.

Louis greatly emphasized etiquettes in ballet dancing, evidently seen in "La belle danse" the French noble style. More challenging skills were required to perform this dance with movements very much resembling court behaviors, as a way to remind the nobles of the king's absolute power and their own status.

All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government.

They often focused on the miseries arising from poor government, but also carried the hope for a better future when Louis escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and mistresses, and took the government into his own hands.

On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy.

These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the idea of monarchy.

Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good.

He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes , as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in , dental abscesses in , along with recurring boils , fainting spells, gout , dizziness , hot flushes, and headaches.

On 18 November , Louis underwent a painful operation for an anal fistula that was performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy, who prepared a specially shaped curved scalpel for the occasion.

The wound took more than two months to heal. Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September , four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne.

Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina O Lord, make haste to help me.

It remained there undisturbed for about 80 years, until revolutionaries exhumed and destroyed all of the remains found in the Basilica.

Louis outlived most of his immediate legitimate family. His last surviving in-wedlock son, the Dauphin, died in Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the eldest of the Dauphin's three sons and then heir to Louis, followed his father.

Burgundy's elder son, Louis, Duke of Brittany , joined them a few weeks later. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou , Burgundy's younger son.

He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse , of the rank of Prince of the Blood , which Louis had granted them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.

Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in According to Philippe de Dangeau 's Journal , Louis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words:.

Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity.

Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects.

Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins. Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments.

Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne.

This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics. These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.

Arguably, Louis also applied himself indirectly to "the alleviation of the burdens of [his] subjects. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions during his reign are seen by these historians as the result of Louis' consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites.

In their analysis, his early reforms centralised France and marked the birth of the modern French state. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe.

Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. French became the universal language of the European elite. Louis' detractors have argued that his considerable foreign, military, and domestic expenditure impoverished and bankrupted France.

His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not. As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu 's Persian Letters.

Alternatively, Louis' critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure.

Other scholars counter that there was little reason to reform institutions that largely worked well under Louis.

They also maintain that events occurring almost 80 years after his death were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis, and that in any case, his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.

Louis has often been criticised for his vanity. The memoirist Saint-Simon , who claimed that Louis slighted him, criticised him thus:.

There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it.

For his part, Voltaire saw Louis' vanity as the cause for his bellicosity:. It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves.

Nonetheless, Louis has also received praise. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name".

In , at Nuneham House , a piece of Louis' mummified heart, taken from his tomb and kept in a silver locket by Lord Harcourt , Archbishop of York , was shown to the Dean of Westminster , William Buckland , who ate it.

He did say, "Every time I appoint someone to a vacant position, I make a hundred unhappy and one ungrateful. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if King Louis were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.

Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon , a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. Louis' patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

It is one of the oldest in Europe. This is an incomplete list of Louis XIV's illegitimate children.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the French musical about him, see Le Roi Soleil musical. For other uses, see Sun King disambiguation.

For other uses, see Louis XIV disambiguation. For other uses, see Louis Quatorze disambiguation. King of France and Navarre, from to King of France.

Portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud , Basilica of St Denis. Maria Theresa of Spain. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Franco-Spanish War — Further information: Orientalism in early modern France.

Main article: Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Main article: War of the Grand Alliance. Main article: Treaty of Ryswick.

Main article: War of the Spanish Succession. Ancestors of Louis XIV Antoine of Navarre [] Henry IV of France [] Henry II of Navarre [] 9.

Jeanne III of Navarre [] Eleanor of Toledo [] 5. Marie de' Medici [] Joanna of Austria [] Louis XIV of France Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Philip II of Spain [] Isabella of Portugal 6.

Philip III of Spain [] Maria of Austria 3. Anne of Austria Margaret of Austria [] Albert V, Duke of Bavaria [] Maria Anna of Bavaria [] MSN Encarta.

Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 20 January The Independent. Retrieved 4 July Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 January Paris, France: Plon-Nourrit.

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Ludwig 14.

Den andra fronden, startade , men slogs ned Frankrike erhöll hela Roussillon , Artois samt delar av Flandern och Luxemburg.

De gifte sig den 9 juni Hela hemgiften betalades aldrig av Spanien, som var bankrutt. Statsskulden minskades genom ett lättare skattesystem.

Colbert räknas till en av merkantilismens grundare. Den innebar att Frankrike nu hade ett gemensamt lagsystem. Tidigare hade de norra delarna av Frankrike sedvanerätt coutume och de södra hade ett romerskt lagsystem.

Kungen var enormt slösaktig. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini var arkitekt bakom flera andra kända byggen. Han anställde Claude Perrault till att bygga en ny del i slottet Louvren.

Det varade till Fredsavtalet skrevs i Aix-la-Chapelle Frankrike erhöll alla erövringar i Flandern och staden Lille. Det blev ytterligare problem i Nederländerna.

Detta utlöste en maktkamp, som resulterade i det andra engelsk-nederländska kriget. Trippelalliansen höll dock inte länge.

Fransmännen ockuperade stora delar av Nederländerna, och de Witt avsattes. Vilhelm III fick nu mer makt. Frankrike erövrade snabbt Gent och kriget tog slut med freden i Nijmegen.

Ludvig själv var mycket missnöjd med fredsavtalet, även om det stärkte Frankrikes position i Europa. Han avskedade diplomaten Simon Arnauld , eftersom han hade varit "för pacifistisk.

Strasbourg erkändes som en del av Frankrike , efter pfalziska tronföljdskriget. Vid Jean-Baptiste Colberts död hade skatteintäkterna tredubblats och ekonomin förbättrats.

Det byggdes om i fyra olika byggperioder. Han flyttade officiellt in i slottet den 6 maj Versailles bländande och respektingivande miljö var respekthöjande för landet, bland högt uppsatta personer, samtidigt som uppmärksamheten inte delades med folket.

Hovlivet var lyxigt. Ärkefienden Österrike var ockuperade av Osmanska riket till följd av kriget mot Osmanska riket. Kriget började och avslutades I maj reste dogen till Paris för att be om ursäkt till Ludvig.

Hans hustru, Maria Teresia, avled Dessa gav han fina titlar, lät dem gifta in sig i förnäma släkter, till och med i den kungliga familjen.

De gifte sig troligtvis i slutet av , hemligt och morganatiskt , ett äktenskap som skulle vara fram till hans död.

I oktober utfärdade han ediktet i Fontainebleau. Anledningen var bland annat att Frankrike ockuperat Luxemburg.

Pfalz tvingades lämna ligan och med detta försvagades den ytterligare. Frankrike trodde att Englands katolske kung Jakob II skulle förbli neutral, men i samband med den ärorika revolutionen , förändrades detta.

Det pfalziska tronföljdskriget kunde börja. Kriget gick bra för Frankrike. Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions— customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south.

Among other things, it prescribed baptismal, marriage and death records in the state's registers, not the church's, and it strictly regulated the right of the Parlements to remonstrate.

One of Louis' more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of , also known as the Code Noir "black code".

Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised.

The War of Devolution did not focus on the payment of the dowry; rather, the lack of payment was what Louis XIV used as a pretext for nullifying Maria Theresa's renunciation of her claims, allowing the land to "devolve" to him.

In Brabant the location of the land in dispute , children of first marriages traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents' remarriages and still inherited property.

Louis' wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new king of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage.

Johan de Witt , Dutch Grand Pensionary from to , viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents.

Louis provided support in the Second Anglo-Dutch War but used the opportunity to launch the War of Devolution in The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold , the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic , then seize the Spanish Netherlands.

Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th.

The French alliance was deeply unpopular in England, who made peace with the Dutch in the February Treaty of Westminster.

Reforms introduced by Louvois , the Secretary of War , helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready.

By , mutual exhaustion led to the Treaty of Nijmegen , which was generally settled in France's favour and allowed Louis to intervene in the Scanian War.

Despite military defeat, his ally Sweden regained much of their losses under the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Fontainebleau and Lund imposed on Denmark-Norway and Brandenburg.

Louis was at the height of his power, but at the cost of uniting his opponents; this increased as he continued his expansion.

In , he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne , because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies.

Louis maintained the strength of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims avoided using military force alone.

Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom. Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously.

Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties. Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale , were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways.

Louis also sought Strasbourg , an important strategic crossing on the left bank of the Rhine and theretofore a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire , annexing it and other territories in Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia.

Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. However, the Spanish were rapidly defeated because the Emperor distracted by the Great Turkish War abandoned them, and the Dutch only supported them minimally.

By the Truce of Ratisbon , in , Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.

This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli , two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves.

Next, in , a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars.

Although the Genoese submitted, and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance.

European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades ' effect discussed below led many states to abandon their alliance with France.

French colonies multiplied in Africa, the Americas, and Asia during Louis' reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America.

Throughout these regions Louis and Colbert embarked on an extensive program of architecture and urbanism meant to reflect the styles of Versailles and Paris and the 'gloire' of the realm.

Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in , reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont.

This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan , superbly received at Versailles in However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya , the execution of his pro-French minister Constantine Phaulkon , and the Siege of Bangkok in ended this era of French influence.

France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. By the early s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.

Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.

Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism , which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France , which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.

Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties.

Although the king could not make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.

Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the Declaration. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.

According to historian Philip Mansel , the king turned the palace into:. Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king.

With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions.

Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.

Louis's extravagance at Versailles extended far beyond the scope of elaborate court rituals. He took delivery of an African elephant as a gift from the king of Portugal.

This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.

Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy the "nobility of the sword" into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.

In their place, he raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy the "nobility of the robe". He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence.

It is believed that Louis's policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde , when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some.

This victory over the nobility may thus have ensured the end of major civil wars in France until the French Revolution about a century later.

In France was the leading European power, and most wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army.

It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. Its weaknesses included an inefficient financial system that was hard-pressed to pay for its military adventures, and the tendency of most other powers to gang up against it.

There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that war was the ideal way to enhance his glory.

He recommended that France fight back by licensing French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies:.

Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes , which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom.

He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, his religion" , the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods , closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.

He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism.

In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.

Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse.

Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades.

On 15 October , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions.

The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom.

No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished. Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life.

Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church.

Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.

He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.

Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.

Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.

They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained.

What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.

Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.

In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.

French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.

This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis's political and diplomatic fortunes.

It arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis's sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte.

German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.

Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.

The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria , but the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.

Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.

In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis's actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.

Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Another event Louis found threatening was England's Glorious Revolution of This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England.

He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a provocation. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England.

Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William.

Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.

This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the preemptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".

His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion.

Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.

Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.

Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which more than 4, buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.

The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.

Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail. Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.

The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border as it is to this day.

However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.

Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , heir to the Spanish throne.

Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.

The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.

Though in some respects the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.

By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.

He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.

Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations. However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters.

In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.

This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.

William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.

In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died.

The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories. On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.

He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided.

Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union. If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.

Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He could agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.

He may initially have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties, but the Dauphin's insistence persuaded him otherwise.

He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".

Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly. Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly.

Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.

But his actions were certainly not read as disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.

These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.

Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France.

The war began with French successes, but the talents of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.

The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy.

Marlborough and Eugene met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to invade France. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France.

Between and , over two million people died in two famines, made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages. By the winter of —09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost.

He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years.

But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him.

If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V.

The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.

The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.

In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.

If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 's in the 16th century.

To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.

Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.

Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.

Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.

He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.

He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.

Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church. He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.

Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.

Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies.

Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.

With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of his reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.

At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.

The memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.

While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.

The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.

With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.

With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.

The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.

Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.

This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.

The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.

As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.

There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.

Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.

Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle. However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy.

Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain. However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson.

That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants.

The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later. In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.

In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.

He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.

Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns.

Louis, however, struck more than to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France.

He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events.

They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.

Louis loved ballet and frequently danced in court ballets during the early half of his reign. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets.

This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer. His choices were strategic and varied. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun.

It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing.

The sheer number of performances he gave as well as the diversity of roles he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form.

Ballet dancing was actually used by Louis as a political tool to hold power over his state. He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities.

Pierre Beauchamp , his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success.

His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in This major development in ballet played an important role in promoting French culture and ballet throughout Europe during Louis' time.

Louis greatly emphasized etiquettes in ballet dancing, evidently seen in "La belle danse" the French noble style.

More challenging skills were required to perform this dance with movements very much resembling court behaviors, as a way to remind the nobles of the king's absolute power and their own status.

All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government.

They often focused on the miseries arising from poor government, but also carried the hope for a better future when Louis escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and mistresses, and took the government into his own hands.

On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy.

These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the idea of monarchy.

Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good.

He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes , as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in , dental abscesses in , along with recurring boils , fainting spells, gout , dizziness , hot flushes, and headaches.

On 18 November , Louis underwent a painful operation for an anal fistula that was performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy, who prepared a specially shaped curved scalpel for the occasion.

The wound took more than two months to heal. Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September , four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne.

Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina O Lord, make haste to help me.

It remained there undisturbed for about 80 years, until revolutionaries exhumed and destroyed all of the remains found in the Basilica.

Louis outlived most of his immediate legitimate family. His last surviving in-wedlock son, the Dauphin, died in Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the eldest of the Dauphin's three sons and then heir to Louis, followed his father.

Burgundy's elder son, Louis, Duke of Brittany , joined them a few weeks later. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou , Burgundy's younger son.

He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse , of the rank of Prince of the Blood , which Louis had granted them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.

Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in According to Philippe de Dangeau 's Journal , Louis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words:.

Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity.

Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects.

Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins. Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments.

Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne.

This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics. These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.

Arguably, Louis also applied himself indirectly to "the alleviation of the burdens of [his] subjects. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions during his reign are seen by these historians as the result of Louis' consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites.

In their analysis, his early reforms centralised France and marked the birth of the modern French state. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe.

Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. French became the universal language of the European elite.

Louis' detractors have argued that his considerable foreign, military, and domestic expenditure impoverished and bankrupted France.

His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not.

As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu 's Persian Letters.

Alternatively, Louis' critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure.

Other scholars counter that there was little reason to reform institutions that largely worked well under Louis. They also maintain that events occurring almost 80 years after his death were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis, and that in any case, his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.

Louis has often been criticised for his vanity. The memoirist Saint-Simon , who claimed that Louis slighted him, criticised him thus:.

There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it.

For his part, Voltaire saw Louis' vanity as the cause for his bellicosity:. It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves.

Nonetheless, Louis has also received praise. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name".

In , at Nuneham House , a piece of Louis' mummified heart, taken from his tomb and kept in a silver locket by Lord Harcourt , Archbishop of York , was shown to the Dean of Westminster , William Buckland , who ate it.

He did say, "Every time I appoint someone to a vacant position, I make a hundred unhappy and one ungrateful. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if King Louis were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.

Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon , a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. Louis' patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

It is one of the oldest in Europe. This is an incomplete list of Louis XIV's illegitimate children. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the French musical about him, see Le Roi Soleil musical. For other uses, see Sun King disambiguation. For other uses, see Louis XIV disambiguation.

For other uses, see Louis Quatorze disambiguation. King of France and Navarre, from to King of France.

Portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud , Basilica of St Denis. Maria Theresa of Spain. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Franco-Spanish War — Further information: Orientalism in early modern France.

Main article: Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Main article: War of the Grand Alliance. Main article: Treaty of Ryswick.

Main article: War of the Spanish Succession. Ancestors of Louis XIV Antoine of Navarre [] Henry IV of France [] Henry II of Navarre [] 9. Jeanne III of Navarre [] Eleanor of Toledo [] 5.

Marie de' Medici [] Joanna of Austria [] Louis XIV of France Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Philip II of Spain [] Isabella of Portugal 6.

Philip III of Spain [] Maria of Austria 3. Anne of Austria

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Ludwig 14. Navigationsmenü

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